Buildings

Fredric Bedoire, Professor of Architectural History at the Royal University of Fine Arts in

Stockholm has, with great kindness, allowed Tikvah to reproduce the section from his

seminal book "The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture, 1830-1930" (published

by KTAV New Jersey) relating to Oradea.


It is an honour for us to be allowed to have this privileged access. In order to see the

detail please click anywhere on the image below and you will be taken to what

Rudolf Klein, Professor of the History of Architecture, Tel Aviv and Budapest, called "an

intellectual thriller that will appeal to architects, historians, and general readers

interested in art or Jewish subjects."


The-Promised-City-Cover





The next part of our Buildings section will grow over the next few months. We

intend to highlight specific buildings with strong Jewish influence for more detailed

examination. Please be patient as we decide what is the best way to display this

information.





Synagogues of Oradea


Before the Second World War and the catastrophic events of 1944, Oradea had a

thriving array of synagogues catering for the indvidual needs of the large Jewish

population of the city. We are bringing together on this page a snapshot of how the

synagogues appear at the present time. With the work currently being undertaken by

the Jewish community and the Oradea Council there is hope of a better future for some

of these buildings.


The preservation of buildings of historic and cultural importance is the responsibility of

the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage who maintain a register which is available

for viewing. Oradea has around 130 entries in the register, including the two main

synagogues identified below.


Neolog

A magnificent Neolog Synagogue, with a large full-toned organ and a capacity for over

a thousand people was built in 1878 in the centre of the city. This neo-mauric

architectural monument became known to Oradeans as the Zion Temple and it has

always been associated with its famous Chief Rabbi, Dr. Lipot Kecskemeti. Its shining

imposing cupola, reflecting in the water of the River Cris, is to this day the centre's

most recognisable monument.


The architect was David Busch and the synagogue was built by Kalman Rimanoczy

senior. The intricate internal frescoes were painted by Mor Horovitz.


This historic monument is badly in need of repair and is not in use at the moment.

There are however some very positive developments in prospect as the Local Council of

Oradea have agreed, in principle, to convert the Synagogue into a concert hall,

conference centre and tourist information centre.


Orthodox



In 1890, a new and imposing Orthodox Synagogue, was built in neo-mauric style and is

known as the Great Synagogue. The architect was Bach Nandor. This synagogue has

seating for 1,050 people (600 for men downstairs and 450 for women upstairs); it is

currently undergoing extensive refurbishment and has only been used in recent years

for special occasions.

This small synagogue in the grounds of the Jewish Community was built in 1908 by

Incze Lajos. It is known as the Sas Chevra Synagogue and is still in use for daily

worship whilst the Great Synagogue is undergoing restoration.


Teleki synagogue


The beautiful Primariei (Teleki) Street orthodox synagogue, built in 1928, in neo-

brancovenesc style, was the last synagogue built in Oradea. The architect was Istvan

Pinter and the builder Bella Weimann.


In a state of disrepair, this synagogue was being used as a vegetable warehouse.

However, there are now great plans to renovate the building and to create a Museum

of the History of the Jews of Oradea and Bihor. Detailed plans have been drawn up by

architect Cristian Puscas with the assistance of a team of students from the Faculty

of Architecture and Construction. The venture will be a partnership between the Jewish

Community of Oradea and the Muzeului Tarii Crisurilor. Asociatia Tikvah have also

entered into a partnership with the new Museum venture in order to encourage the

completion of this development. It is hoped that European funding might be available.

The Architect, Cristian Puscas, discusses progress with Aurel Chiriac, Director of the

"Tara Crisurilor" Museum and Emilia Teszler, President of Asociatia Tikvah in October 2013.

The Poale Cedek synagogue for craftsmen was erected at the initiative of Rabbi

Benjamin Fuchs around 1910. For many years it was used as a workshop, but now lies

abandoned.


Viznitz

This synagogue was built by a benefactor of a senior Rabbi, Jisrael Hager of the Viznitz

branch of Hasidism who fled from persecution with his court to Oradea in 1915. The

Rabbi was previously established in Bukovina but managed to negotiate with the

invading Russians for an orderly departure, together with 70 of his companions.



The synagogue was used as a hospital for the ghetto in 1944. Subsequently it became

workshop, but is now divided into small commercial units.



Restoration


The progress in restoration of the three main synagogues is covered in the video below.

Thanks are due to TVR Cluj, Andrea Ghita, Felix Koppelmann and Andrei Seidler.






Jewish Palaces of Oradea


Some of the finest buildings in Oradea were designed, built or financed by Jews. Many

of the most ornate were designated as "Palaces".


Black Eagle Palace

black eagle glass


In 1905 there was a competition for the design of the new Black Eagle Palace. This was

won by the Jewish architects Komor Marcell and Jakab Dezso. The building was

financed by two Jewish lawyers Dr.Kurlander Ede and Dr.Adorjan Emil and erected on

the site of the old Black Eagle and Green Tree inns. It was opened for business in 1908.

A particular feature of the Palace is the glass covered passages crowned by the large

painted glass decoration of a Black Eagle made by the local manufacturer Neuman

Karoly.


Ullmann Palace

The Ullmann Palace was completed in 1913. It is one of the few non-religious buildings

in Oradea which clearly displays its Jewish allegiance. The façade is decorated with the

Lions of Judah framing a traditional Menorah. This is the  work of Professor Breitner

from the Vienna School of Arts and manufactured at the famous Zsolnay factory in

south-west Hungary.


The Ullmann family were one of the leading Jewish families of Oradea having arrived in

the 1860s and Izidor Ullmann played a major role in the creation of the Oradea's

Chamber of Trade and Industry as well as founding the Orthodox Jewish School.


It was Sandor Ullman, son of Izidor, who commissioned the local architect Ferenc Lobl,

who was born in Oradea in December 1882, to design the Palace. Ferenc did most of

his most famous work in Vienna. But, like many Jews in Austria, he was deported in

1942 to a concentration camp in Eastern Poland from where he never returned. His

legacy is one of the finest Secessionist buildings in Oradea and, which when built,

overlooked the main market square of Oradea.


Moskovits Palace

The Moskovits Palace was erected in two phases between 1910 and 1911. It was

commissioned by the Moskovits family, Jewish entrepreneurs in the mill and food trade.

They commissioned Jozsef and Laszlo Vago, two of the most prominent of the Secessionist

architects of the time, to provide an innovative and distinctive facade design.


It is organised around a courtyard with shops at ground level and three floors of

apartments. It is currently due for a substantial refurbishment of the original Vago motifs.


Miksa Moskovits Palace



This building was commissioned by Miksa Moskovits, a Jewish engineer, for his own

occupation and was built in 1904-05. It is thought to be the first buiding in Oradea that

incorporated reinforced concrete following a design of Szilard Zielinszky from Budapest.

It is exceptionally rich in decoration with birds, trees and flowers


Stern Palace

The Stern Palace was built in 1904-05 under the supervision of architects Komor

Marcell and Jakab Dezso. It has a Lechnerian style and has two hidden courtyards. The

decorative motifs represent aspects of nature and folk art. There is some fine ironwork

both internally and in the gates.



Sonnenfeld Palace



The commissioner and owner of this building was Adolf Sonnenfeld, the Jewish

proprietor of the largest printing works in Oradea. It was built in 1911-12. Adolf

Sonnenfeld also commissioned the first Secessionist house in Oradea.


The printing works were contained in the inner courtyard.


The architect was Frigyes Spiegel, a noted Art Nouveau innovator and Jew, who worked

primarily in Budapest, but who lived and worked in Oradea between 1919 and 1923.


Other notable Jewish related buildings


Darvas House




Darvas House can be considered the most original Secession-style individual residence

built in Oradea. It was the second villa designed in Oradea by the Vago brothers (Laszlo

and Jozsef). The house was commissioned by the owner Imre Darvas, a wood-dealing

entrepreneur in Oradea and built by Ferenc Sztarill in 1909-10.


The rear view in the second picture has access towards the Crisul Repede river.


Inside the entrance hall is the commemorative plaque pictured above. 


In 2016, the Darvas House has been converted into a museum of Art Nouveau as

can be seen from the following photographs:

We are grateful to Bihoreanul for the use of their photographs and more can be seen

on their website.

Gendarmes School




Built in 1911-13, the Gendarmes School is the final building designed by Jozsef Vago in

Oradea. It is clearly a very functional, but harmonious, design and comprises a range of

buildings. It is now part of the University of Oradea.


Salamon Goldstein building





The architect of the Salamon Goldstein building was Ferenc Sztarill and it was built in

1910. Like many other Sztarill designs it has a minimum of ornamentation and gets its

uniqueness from its trapezoid design and cantilevered tower.


It has the only remaining entrance gate in Oradea with a Star of David design.


Adorjan I house

Adorjan I house is the first building commissioned by Emil Adorjan. Emil Adorjan was a

Jewish entrepreneur, an intellectual and an attorney. He appointed two young friends,

Marcell Komor and Dezso Jakab to be the architects. The building was erected shortly

after 1900 and is one of the most richly decorated buildings in Oradea.


Adorjan II house


Adorjan II House was the second building commissioned by Emil Adorjan. It is a

symmetric design with three balconies. It is richly designed both on the facade and the

ironwork with floral and vegetation motifs. It was built in 1904-05 by Ferenc Sztarill

to the design of architects, Dezso Jakab and Marcell Komor.


Hotel Parc

The Hotel Parc consists of several buildings. The main hotel is illustrated above. The

hotel was inaugurated by the Veiszlovits brothers (Emil and Gyula) in March 1915.


Asociatia Tikvah welcomes contributions to our website from local experts in their

subjects. Mircea Pasca is a leading architectural historian based in Oradea and he has

given us permission to quote from the series of books he has authored on buildings and

architects in Oradea. Below is the latest in the series of books he has produced, this

one being on the Ullmann Palace. All books are available to purchase in Oradea.




Two earlier publications relevant for understanding architecture in Oradea are:

Nr.

crt.

Perioada

1867-1918

Perioada

1918-1940

Perioada

1940-1944

Perioada

1944-1948

Denumirea actuală

1.

Szent János utca

str. Vlahuţă

Szent János utca

str. Béla Breiner

str. Ady Endre

2.

Zöldfa utca

str. Nicolae Iorga

Hlatky Endre utca

str. Vasile Alecsandri

str. Vasile Alecsandri

3.

Ország út

Vég út

Aradi út

Calea Aradului

Aradi út

Gróf Tisza István út

Calea Aradului

str. Ferenc Rákóczi II

Calea Aradului

4.

Arany János utca

str. Millerand

Arany János utca

str. Arany János

str. Arany János

5.

Nagy Malom utca

Bogár utca

Malom utca

str. Vasile Lucaciu

Malom utca

str. Vasile Lucaciu

str. Avântului

6.

Vécsey Károly utca

str. Mărăşeşti

Vécsey Károly utca

str. Károly Vécsey

str. Bacăului

7.

Felső Kis Német utca

Damjanich János utca

str. Simion Bărnuţiu

Damjanich utca

str. Simion Bărnuţiu

str. Simion Bărnuţiu

8.

Bunyitai liget

Parcul Regele Carol

Parcul Alba Iulia

Bunyitai liget

Parcul Muncitorilor

Parcul I.C. Brătianu

9.

Gillányi sor

str. Astra

Gillányi út

Calea Dimitrie Cantemir

str. Dimitrie Cantemir

10.

Bánya sor

str. Minelor

Gillányi út

str. Dimitrie Cantemir

11.

Terézia utca

str. Panait Cerna

Terézia utca

str. Panait Cerna

str. Panait Cerna

12.

Nagy Fürdő utca

Úri utca

str. Episcop Ciorogariu

str. Adolf Hitler

str. Attila József

str. Episcop Ciorogariu

13.

Kolozsvári út

Széna utca

Calea Victoriei – până la Calea ferată

str. 20 Aprilie – dincolo de Calea ferată

Mátyás Király út

Kolozsvári út

Calea Matei Corvin– până la Calea ferată

Calea 1 Mai– dincolo de Calea ferată

Calea Clujului

14.

Erzsébet utca

str. Miron Costin

Kocsán János utca

str. Miron Costin

str. Miron Costin

15.

Posta sikátor

Posta utca

Szalárdy János utca

str. George Coşbuc

Szalárdy János utca

str. George Coşbuc

str. George Coşbuc

16.

Gyep utca

Nap utca

Vitéz utca

Calea Decebal

Vitéz utca

Calea Decebal

Calea Decebal

17.

Nagyvásártér

Piaţa Mihai Viteazul

Benito Mussolini tér

Piaţa Mihai Viteazul

Piaţa 1 Decembrie

18.

Sütő utca

Vár utca

Báthory utca

str. Horia

Báthori István utca

str. Constantin Dobrogeanu Gherea

str. Constantin Dobrogeanu Gherea

19.

Apolló utca

Nagy Pereces utca

Szaniszló utca

str. I.C. Brătianu

Szaniszló utca

str. I.C. Brătianu

str. Mihai Eminescu

20.

Ritoók Zsigmond utca

str. Delavrancea

Ritoók Zsigmond utca

str. József Hübschenberger

str. George Enescu

21.

Bémer tér

Piaţa Regina Maria

Bémer tér

Horty Miklós tér

Piaţa Stalin

Piaţa Regele Ferdinand

22.

Kertész utca

str. Bolintineanu

Ráday Gedeon utca

str. Kertész

str. Grădinarilor

23.

Vár utca

Vár tér

Sánc utca

str. Griviţei

Sánc utca

str. Griviţei

str. Griviţei

24.

Téglagyár utca

str. Fabriciei de cărămidă

Téglagyár utca

str. Guttenberg

str. Johann Guttenberg

25.

Templom utca

Nagy Tükör utca

str. Bisericii

str. Episcop E. Beniamin

Templom utca

str. Béla Somogyi

str. Cardinal Iuliu Hossu

26.

Kert utca

Mezey Mihály utca

str. General Moşoiu

Mezey Mihály utca

str. Avram Iancu

str. Avram Iancu

27.

Sas utca - înainte de 1904

Kossuth Lajos utca - după 1904

str. Avram Iancu

Kossuth Lajos utca

str. Lajos Kossuth

str. Independenţei

28.

Nilgesz telep

Colonia Nilgesz

Nilgesz telep

-

Cartierul Nicolae Iorga

29.

Őssi telep

-

-

Colonia Ioşia

Cartierul Ioşia

30.

Őssi tér

Piaţa Ioşia

Gróf Majláth Gusztáv utca

str. Ştefan Octavian Iosif

str. Ştefan Octavian Iosif

31.

Köfaragó utca - înainte de 1904

Lukács György utca - după 1904

str. Nicolae Jiga

Lukács György utca

str. Nicolae Jiga

str. Nicolae Jiga

32.

Pecze sor

dr. Várady Zsigmond utca

Szarvas sor

str. Nicu Filipescu

dr. Várady Zsigmond utca

str. Mihail Kogălniceanu

str. Mihail Kogălniceanu

33.

Nagysándor József utca

str. Iosif Vulcan

Nagysándor József utca

str. József Nagysándor

str. Aurel Lazăr

34.

Olaszi utca

Sztaroveszky utca

str. Sztaroveszky

Piaţa Iaşilor

str. Episcop Radu

Sztaroveszky utca

str. Episcop Ciorogariu

str. General Magheru

35.

Nagy Magyar utca

Beöthy Ödön utca

str. Dimitrie Cantemir

Beöthy Ödön utca

str. Petru Groza

Str. Iuliu Maniu

36.

Széles utca

str. General Holban

str. Mihail Sorbul

Mikszáth Kálmán utca

str. Karl Marx

str. Menumorut

37.

Apácza utca

Szilágyi Dezső utca

str. Prinţul Carol

str. Regele Ferdinand

Szilágyi Dezső utca

str. Sindicatelor

str. Moscovei

Határ utca

Nagy híd utca

Gyár utca

str. Fabricelor

Gyár utca

str. Tito

str. Eftimie Murgu

Szöllős telep

-

Szöllős telep

Colonia Seleuş

Cartierul Nufărul

38.

-

-

Oncsa telep

Cartierul Oncea

39.

Kis kút utca

Vízvezeték utca

str. Ferenc Berkovits

str. dr. Ioan Ciordaş

Berkovits Ferenc utca

str. Ioan Ciordaş junior

str. Olteniei

40.

Közép utca

Pável utca

str. Episcopul Pavel

Pável utca

str. Episcop Pavel

str. Episcop Pavel

41.

Hideg utca

Hidegser utca

Kórház utca

str. Louis Pasteur

Vörösmarty Mihály utca

str. Louis Pasteur

str. Louis Pasteur

42.

Új sor

Schlauch tér

Parcul Carmen Sylva

Schlauch Bíbornok tér

Piaţa Sándor Petőfi

Parcul Sándor Petőfi

43.

Nagy Teleki utca - înainte de 1904

Gróf Teleki Pál utca - după 1904

str. Alex(cs)andri

Gróf Teleki Pál utca

str. Visinszki

str. Primăriei

44.

Fő utca

Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand

Rákóczi út

Horthy Miklós út

str. Republicii

str. Republicii

45.

Országút

Rákóczi út

Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand

Rákóczi út

Horthy Miklós út

str. Republicii

str. Republicii

46.

Nagy Szőllősi utca

Körös tér

Szöllős utca

str. Ştefan Octavian Iosif

Szöllős utca

str. Ervin Szabó

str. Seleuşului

47.

Füzes utca

str. Praga

Apáca utca

str. Louis Barthou

str. Sovata

48.

Rózsa utca

str. Aurel Vlaicu

-

-

str. Sucevei

49.

Vámház utca

str. Aurel Vlaicu

Szeptember 6. utca

str. Evreilor deportaţi martiri

str. Sucevei

50.

Templom tér

Piaţa Veneţia

Szent István tér

Piaţa Imre Szacsvay

Piaţa Tineretului

51.

Szent László tér

Piaţa Unirii

Szent László tér

Piaţa Malinovszki

Piaţa Unirii

52.

Őssi út

Calea Ioşia

-

-

str.Tudor Vladimirescu

53.

Nagy Körös utca

Körös utca

Str. Take Ionescu

Gróf Csáky István

str. Tudor Vladimirescu

str.Tudor Vladimirescu

54.

Rimanóczy Kálmán utca

str. Kálmán Rimanóczy

Rimanóczy Kálmán utca

str. Kálmán Rimanóczy

str. Iosif Vulcan